Guest post by A.Martinez
Nick Jirasek is a food artist and founder of underground food entityÂ Guerrilla Smiles. He has worked with TonyÂ Fitzpatrick,Â LinksÂ Hall,Â RedmoonÂ Theater,Â LindaÂ WarrenÂ Projects, HauserÂ Gallery, EnsembleÂ DalÂ Niente, High Concept Laboratories, and more. Nick has a strong love of Malort and makes a mean pork shoulder. I got to ask him some questions about who he is, what he does, and his exciting presence in the arts scene.
A.Martinez: What is your definition of a food artist and what you do?
Nick Jirasek: A food artist is one who uses primarily comestible materials to create, explore, or challenge ideas. Â I work professionally in this capacity at exhibition openings, private events, the streets, house-parties, underground dinners, performances, pop-ups, talk-shows, and screenings.
Martinez: You are a self-trained- how did you develop your skills?
Jirasek: Immersion. There are seemingly unending resources, documentation, and wisdom surrounding food. Everyone wants to talk about it, wants to teach you the â€˜right way to do it,â€™ to share the ritual of eating with you, the most authentic place to buy kielbasa, the healthiest diet, the ethical diet, the best place to eat carnitas. Once I had the feeling that being a food artist is what I wanted to do, I made it my entire life. Some of the learning has been traditional in cooking under trained kitchen professionals, but most of it has been in acute observation and guerrilla learning tactics. Iâ€™ll sound like a broken .FLAC if I say the internet has been a tremendous resource, so Iâ€™ll say itâ€™s been invaluable. That of course means the usual suspects of e-books, Youtubes, and blog trolling, but also some harder to find fountains of information in more underground and illicit venues of the www. Once one is cognizant of basic technique, cultural/ethnic culinary tradition, and flavor pairing, is when some cooks then begin to hone their craft or get the fuck out; an Italian chef mastering the different regions of Italy, travelling to the Piedmonts to study centuries of tradition in Agnolotti, or a trade-school dropout in search of Tru. They begin to specialize based on their talents, their genealogy, and interests. But, Iâ€™m not interested in specializing my edible journey. I want to continually challenge the ideas and traditions of food while building a vocabulary of how to articulate that comestibly, socially, and literally.
Martinez: Who and what is Guerrilla Smiles and how long has it been around?
Jirasek: Guerrilla Smiles started as a social project about 6 years ago; to simply spread smiles in unexpected places and unexpected ways that would serve to beautify our lives and the lives around us.
I was a worn-out, director of food and beverage at Chicagoâ€™s 4th tallest building, the John Hancock. I worked a ridiculous amount of hours. The dreams at night of P&Lâ€™s, and the commute home down Chicago on the 66 bus was the cherry on-top of the soul sucking sundae. One day someone at the Hancock had ordered what must have been nearly a hundred gold, helium filled balloons and thrown them in the loading dock after the party was over. Â I grabbed all the balloons and walked down the street, handing a floating ball of gold to anyone and everyone that would take them. People like balloons, or maybe just the color gold more than I had thought. I was overrun by would-be gold-diggers by the time I made it to the McDonaldâ€™s on State street. At that point I walked to the middle of intersection and released the remaining bouquet of gold into the sky. Similar projects came in weeks following like cashing half my paycheck at the currency exchange in quarters and handing them out, then throwing them in the air and off bridges. Safety became an issue.
Around the same time my good friends Claire Molek and Erin Babbin were starting a gallery practice called Studio1020 (later theStudio and thisisnothestudio). Â Building on the ideas put forth on the street, I pleaded with them to seize the opportunity of the ubiquitous gallery food & wine table. Â The idea was simple; to mirror the displaying artistsâ€™ work aesthetically or thematically in comestible form. This way the dialogue of what the artistâ€™s message was, was literally palatable and hopefully led to broaden and ease the discourse. Â Through the past 5 years, a changing cast of cooking professionals, artists, and friends have helped carry on this mission from private dinners of 9 to public events of 900.
Martinez: The Break The Bread series focuses on your collaborations with visual artists at galleries around the city. How do you choose what artists and galleries with which youâ€™re going to collaborate? Or do they choose you?
Jirasek: For the vast majority of gigs, the artist, gallerist, or curator approaches us. Guerrilla Smiles does not advertise, has no website, and uses social media sparsely as a means to communicate. That is to say, we truly relish our underground disposition. My time with Studio1020 afforded me a great opportunity to interact and network directly with interested parties, interesting artists, and share lots of ideas through food. It all started from there and kind of naturally branched out by word of mouth. I have, in special situations, approached artists I want to work with and am looking forward to doing so more in the near future, as well as producing independent original work.
Martinez: What is the process of trying out new dish?
Jirasek: I kind of have an ongoing list of techniques, ingredients, serving vessels, equipment and ideas Iâ€™m waiting for the right opportunity to try. When it seems appropriate, I get to try out new stuff. In general, the basis for everything I make is a new dish as every exhibition or performance is new. There is some safety in knowing my control of flavor is adept, my technique is solid, but conversely an exciting trepidation in knowing that this dish has components I have done before, but altogether is completely new.
Martinez: What is the biggest revelation youâ€™ve had about the way you work?
Jirasek: One needs to be aware of their work patterns and not sabotage their opportunities. I donâ€™t like asking for help, and no one will ever work for me for free.
Martinez: Is shopping for ingredients an important part of your creative process?
Jirasek: Extremely. I devote at least an entire day to shopping for an event that can completely change the menu. The Green City Market is a staple and only occurs on 2 days of the week. But generally I go to local specialty stores and markets that take me from 113th to Skokie. This process of traveling all around the city, of breathing in the lifeblood of our diverse culture, of interacting with ethnicities whose only commonality with me is Chicago and food, is probably my greatest inspiration. Itâ€™s not dissimilar to the interaction I have with people on the night of an event. Most â€˜food peopleâ€™ will disagree with me on this, but Iâ€™m less interested in the local food movement and more interested in small, local family businesses, and traditions in Chicagoland.
Martinez: What is your favorite ingredient to work with?
Jirasek: Celery or Popcorn.
Martinez: Guerrilla Smiles has a dish called Oak Street Beach. Describe this dish and how it came about.
Jirasek: Oak Street Beach started as dish for a thisisnotthestudio show featuring artist Xiao Tse at High Concept Laboratories. Tse took upwards of a thousand pictures from the concrete pavement of Oak St. Beachâ€™s shore, facing the lake and narrowed it down to one piece that combined around twenty of the most discerning shots. It is essentially a deconstructed soup, with the broth held separately so as not to affect the aesthetic and textural integrity of the dry ingredients. The dry ingredients are held in a ten ounce clear plastic glass. The sand is a combination of ground peanuts, cashews, and maltodextrin. Â The grass is julienned wild ramps. The trash is a candied ginger chip. The fish is a rice flour fried smelt. The towel is a soy and turmeric based spring roll wrapper. The wet ingredients are suspended above in a fitting five ounce plastic glass, rimmed with suntan lotion that is garlic mayo. The Lake Michigan water is a kombu dashi. The eater is instructed to take a small mouthful of the dry ingredients and wash it down with a swig of the wet ingredients, going back and forth in a double fisted affair like they are swimming, until they are finished.
Martinez: You were born and raised in Chicago and this has a strong influence on the food you make. Are there any other cities or cultures that you either look to for inspiration or are inherent in your work?
Jirasek: I think Mexican food simply got everything right. We obviously have a large population of Mexican-Americans in Chicago, and benefit greatly from the cornucopia of ingredients, flavor, and culture they have imbued upon us. Aside from that, I took great inspiration from my time cooking in Panama City, whose flavors are a great amalgamation of the diverse foreign cultures who have occupied the area and the local flora and fauna. I look forward to delving into historical American First Nation culinaria as a geographical inspiration, and look forward to marrying Filipino and Czech food with acidic flavors.
Martinez: Food-wise, what do you think are some exciting places or events happening around the city?
Jirasek: I think The Plant in The Back of the Yards is going to be a blueprint for metropolitan farming worldwide. Asado Coffeeâ€™s recent expansion plans and concept of â€˜nano-roastingâ€™ is next level. Smalls BBQ is the kind of approachable, forward thinking neighborhood restaurant that Chicago has lacked to put it on the level of NYC. Florioleâ€™s baguettes are worth lining up for a la Paris when they come out fresh at 11am everyday. Three Aces is what every gastropub should strive to be. I also think weâ€™ll see a boon in quality independent food writing like Graze, Middlewest and whatever Anthony Todd has up his sleeve.
Martinez: What is your favorite Chicago-style food? And whereâ€™s your favorite place to get it?
Jirasek: Chicagoâ€™s hot dog is unmatched. Though not all the classic ingredients are included, Gene & Judesâ€™ canâ€™t be contended with because of the volume they go through and the freshness that entails, and fries like woah. Gotta go with underdog Chickieâ€™s for beef because their giardiniera is only quickly cured and crunchier. Salernoâ€™s for pizza because the true Chicago slice is thick crust and party cut.
Martinez: What does Guerrilla Smiles have lined up in the coming months?
Jirasek: In the great tradition of former Redmoon Theater Development Director Sean Kaplan, we will be curating the amuse-bouche portion of the upcoming fundraiser Spectacle Lunatique, outfitted Guerrilla style, primarily by the underground supper clubs of Chicago. We are in post-production for the next episode of our Break The Bread series with OnTheRealFilm for last yearâ€™s THAW fundraiser for Links Hall, as well as designing a menu for a soon opening southside cafe with one of Chicagoâ€™s champion contemporary artists.
Martinez: Is there a piece of advice, food-related or not that you think of often?
Jirasek: Donâ€™t crowd the pan. When it rains, it pours. Be safe, be strong.
All photos courtesy of the artist.
A.Martinez is a freelance art and music organizer living in Chicago, IL.
“Out of the Mouths of Artists” is a new bi-monthly series on the Bad at Sports blog. The series presents a space for guest artist bloggers– of varying career statuses– to write, to reflect, to pontificate on their current situations, failures and/or successes, and ideas on what it means to be an artist. “Out of the Mouths of Artists” also gives readers a glimpse into artists’ portfolios and studios.Â
Relocating a Center
By Nicole Mauser
Just last week, a question was posed to me: â€œWhere is the epicenter of Chicagoâ€™s art scene?â€ This was part of a casual elevator conversation with someone who had just moved from the East Coast to Chicago. I was struck by this question because it made me pause and consider where I geographically invest my time and conversations about art and research. Having relocated back to Chicago from Kansas City, MO, for a second time this past summer, I found myself picking up where I left off.Â In some respects, I am engaged in existing dialogues and structures, while in other professional respects I have set out to tackle completely unknown territories and new challenges.
With the question, I realized how fascinating it is to be an observer on the periphery (even if only temporarily) and see what galleries have disappeared, endured, and emerged, while exploring a â€˜newâ€™ to me Chicago in terms of private collections and historic venues such as The Arts Club or Union League.
I had no short answer for the East Coaster-cum-Chicagoan: 119 Peoria has been all but dismantled (will Three Walls stay or go?); however, there is still a bastion of galleries in the West Loop on Washington. Mana Contemporary is becoming a household by name teaming up with various institutions. Each university with a MFA program from the universitiesâ€”Northwestern, UIC and U of Câ€”to the art schoolsâ€”Columbia College and SAICâ€”has is its own mini-epicenter with concentric circles emanating outward into the art scene. A handful (a few handfuls, really) of Chicago artists are being highlighted in the upcoming Whitney Biennial by Michelle Grabner and Anthony Elms. The MCA has gone through upheaval. Art Expo is back. Ultimately, there is no dominant discourse. In dynamic and thriving arts ecologies, there is a multitude of rich conversations happening. These conversations are being instigated by the artists themselves and to varying degrees by the institutions.
One thing I do know: my life now in Chicago is an inversion of the one I led in KCMO.
After an initial brief stint as an art handler in Chicago, I learned a difficult lesson that not all businesses touting the arts support artists; some exploit employees who make the ultimate sacrifice to pay their bills: no longer making their work. Currently, I juggle a full-time administrative job at one local art school while teaching painting as an adjunct at another local university. And I recently struck up a relationship with Reynolds Gallery in Richmond, Virginia, to exhibit a few pieces of my work. While all of these roles help me pay the rent and gain professional experience, they combine to make ends difficult to support a studio practice.
This is the predicament that many conversations with artist friends revolve around: balancing studio/research time with demands of a job to afford overhead. Whereas in KCMO, many artists cobble together part-time teaching, waiting tables, and selling work to afford three times the living spaceÂ andÂ a studio. In that smaller metropolis, it is a choice to leverage income to focus on the studio practice. It is an option to survive on much less. Therefore, it has become an environment that lends itself to risk taking and igniting experimental collaborations. I found that I was able to do many things, and still work to afford an artistâ€™s necessities. With a number of others, I founded and rigorously participated in two artist enterprises: PLUG Projects and Kansas Cityâ€™s Plein Air Coterie (KCPAC), both of which are going still going strong. The collaborative work I did (from 2011 to 2012) with the always professional co-founders and artists at PLUG was rewarding, and I am grateful to my conspirators there for their mutual desire to shape unique exhibitions and ancillary programming, all from the perspective of the artist as curator. Also, this time at PLUG helped me hone my ability to simultaneously hold down a full time staff job at SAIC and an adjunct teaching appointment at UIC. I believe my experience as part of KCPAC, in which I was working from observation in the elements, helped to erode any assumptions about the relationship between abstraction and perception.
Recently, in Chicago, a few artists and I rekindled a critique group consisting of grad school colleagues (and friends!) for studio visits. Inscribing this regular practice into our studio research is gaining terrific momentum. I truly value these relationships and the quality of our conversations. I am continually blown away by the multitude of in-depth cross-conversations, generosity, and ferocity of investment in each otherâ€™s development. In this context, which is a kind of epicenter for me, criticality is not a rebuff but a way of asking better questions. I find that I am now breaking rules that I once set for myself in the past. I am working to explore abstraction through a host of reference materials, including still lifes, photos, Xeroxed images, and art historical references, in order to push against my own non-objective proclivities.
Through it all, though, I find myself returning to ponder the eternal question, what is the healthiest scenario to support my work? It is the gallery system? Is it the academic system? None of these scenarios are necessarily the sustainable answer. Constantly having open conversations negotiating alternative models and redefining healthy arts ecology seems the best start for me.
In summary, it appears that the current epicenter in Chicago, and in all cities, is a moving targetâ€”for me and for others. This scenario seems to simultaneously present plural opportunities and elusive support mechanisms for oneâ€™s longevity in the arts. And yet, it feels like a great time to be an artist in Chicago.
I hope someone asks me where â€œthe epicenterâ€ is again in five years.
Nicole Mauser (b. 1983, Indianapolis) currently lives and works in Chicago, IL. She obtained a MFA from The University of Chicago (2010) and a BFA from Ringling College of Art & Design (2006). Her works have been exhibited nationally and internationally.Â Mauser was a 2011 recipient of a Post-MFA Teaching Felllowship atÂ The University of Chicago and a recipient of a Student Fine Art Fund Grant for travel and research in Berlin from TheÂ University of Chicago. Exhibitions includeÂ Ft. Gondo Compound for the Arts (St. Louis),Â Carrie Secrist Gallery (Chicago), The Dolphin Gallery (Kansas City), H&R Block Artspace (Kansas City), DOVA Temporary Gallery (Chicago), Gladstone Community Center (Gladstone, MO), Center for Art+Culture (Aix-en-Provence) and AR Gallery (Milan). Collections include The Alexander (Indianapolis) and The Nerman Museum of Contemporary Art (Overland Park, KS). Mauserâ€™s writings have been published inÂ 8 Â½ x 11Â andÂ Art Practical. Mauser is also a co-founder of the artist run gallery,Â PLUG ProjectsÂ and co-founder of the Kansas City Plein Air Coterie (KCPAC).
See more of Nicole’s work at www.nicolemauser.com.
Guess post by Lise Haller Baggeson Ross
At the mini mall where I buy my art supplies, next to Starbucks and Whole Foods, there are two design furniture stores to supply the well to do urban area where we live.
In the window display at Design Within Reach is a Fritz Hansen Egg chair, designed by Arne Jacobsen for the Radisson SAS hotel in Copenhagen in 1958. Originally produced in green wool, the most popular model, like the one it the window, was upholstered in black leather.
In the adjoining shop window, they have a very similar chair. It is an egg-shaped swivel lounge chair in white leather with curvy lines and a star shaped aluminum base. The outside of the shell is covered entirely in aluminum, riveted together with chunky bolts, giving the whole thing a patchworked steam-punk-Barbie-in-an-Amsterdam-hair-salon aesthetic.
My daughter, who just turned eight, thinks this chair is dreamy. I think it is an abomination. But Iâ€™m having a hard time explaining to her why, and why this is a bad thing â€”after all one womanâ€™s homage is another womanâ€™s pimpingâ€”and we canâ€™t even just err on the side of good taste.
Beyond the field of good and bad taste is the boundary of the shocking, and out thereÂ Â Allen Jonesâ€™ Chair is back in style –in Bjarne Melgaardâ€™s pimped up â€œretoxifiedâ€ version of it — now available in black.
â€œThe racist chairâ€ as it has been dubbedâ€”because now it is apparently the chair that is racist, not the artist who made it, not the patron who bought it, not the editor who published the photo which is currently being circulated, not the context of the international art elite (â€”who already included Jonesâ€™s original into our canon as part of the TATEâ€™s permanent collection. A Pop art classic. )
Jones considers the threesome (the chair is accompanied by a table and a hat stand following the same design philosophy) his boldest statement. In reference to his work, he explains that:
The erotic impulse transcends cerebral barriers and demands a direct emotional response. Confronted with an abstract statement people readily defer to an expert; but confronted with an erotic statement everyone is an expert. It seems to me a democratic idea that art should be accessible to everyone on some level, and eroticism in one such level.
This abstract statement makes me wonder about the democratic implications of making one half of the population accessible as furniture for the other half, but off course Iâ€™m no expert on democracy.
If the image of a rich, beautiful white lady perched on top of a contorted busty black woman in bondage sits uncomfortably, it could be because it reminds us of how comfortable we have become with the idea of our bodies being commodified, black and white, black by white, female and male, female by male.
The Russian art world super nova Dasha Zhukova, for it is she in the picture, claims that the outrage over the picture was caused by it being â€œpublished completely out of context,â€. Â She claims that it is in fact â€œa commentary on gender and racial politics,â€ implying that in these international art world matters, she is the expert and we, the internet mob, are not. That we donâ€™t get it.
Melgaardâ€™s art-world buddies have come to his defense, one of them claiming that: â€œHe is not racist. He even dated a black man,â€. But, like with Jonesâ€™ defense of his original when he said, â€œI love women. I was using misogyny ironically!,â€ you can love and debase somebody at the same time. Forniphilia (human furniture) is a fine example of this.
That is called pimping.
No stranger to pimping, Melgaard in fact started off his career with (beautiful) watercolors of himself jerking off on the grave of his idol, Paul Gauguin, it is hardly surprising that he has not apologized as much as philosophized about the incidence. His press statement, released to Art Info through Gavin Brown enterprise, ends with the following:
We see this photograph to be extraordinary. We see this debate to be a distraction from the true challenges that face us. We applaud both the sitter and the seated. To fault the sitter, now in the age of the Anthropocene, in the midst of enormous and REAL obscenities that threaten our actual existence, reflects a civilization that is not dying but already dead. Turn your outrage upside down.
This reference to the â€œage of the Anthropoceneâ€ basically means: this is nothing compared to global warming. But the statement skirts around the fact that global warming is the result of an economy that hinges on the continuous commodification of bodies. The REAL obscenity in this context is the business as usual of employing the â€œend of historyâ€ rhetoric by those who consider themselves â€œwinnersâ€ â€”feminists are not â€œdoneâ€ with history, nor is the civil rights movement –but Melgaard in his statement turns the moral responsibility for this upside down.
To a certain point he is entitled to this position –after all artworks can operate in this field beyond moral good and bad, because of their dual relationship with form and content â€“artistâ€™s statements, on the other hand, cannot since they are only really dealing with content.
PimpingÂ (like irony) in a sense relies on the knowingness with which we acknowledge the relationship between form and content, and how we are able to destabilize it, in the knowledge thatÂ (to use Melgaardâ€™s phrase) both the sitter and the seated â€œgets itâ€, although it does not always sit comfortably.
Recently Miley Cyrus was given a fair amount of push back for pimping a content she didnâ€™t entirely get both in the form of the Afro American phenomenon of Twerking as well as the feminist legacy of Sinead Oâ€™Connorâ€™s shaved head. In Rolling Stone Magazine Cyrus explained how her Wrecking Ball video is a tribute to Oâ€™Connorâ€™s majestic crying game, Nothing Compares To You:
IÂ wanted it to be tough but really pretty â€“ that’s what Sinead did withÂ her hair and everything. The trick is getting the camera up above you,Â so it almost looks like you’re looking up at someone and crying.
Oâ€™Connor called her out and replied with a talking to in the â€œspirit of motherlinessâ€:
It is in fact the case that you will obscure your talent by allowing yourself to be pimped, whether itâ€™s the music business or yourself doing the pimping. [â€¦] The look I chose, I chose on purpose at a time when my record company were encouraging me to do what you have done. I felt I would rather be judged on my talent and not my looks. I am happy that I made that choice, not least because I do not find myself on the proverbial rag heap now that I am almost 47 yrs of age… which unfortunately many female artists who have based their image around their sexuality, end up on when they reach middle age.
Mileyâ€™s response was to repost Oâ€™Connorâ€™s two-year-old tweets, in which she calls for help in treating her mental malady and suicidal impulse, along with an old photo of Oâ€™Connor tearing up a picture of the Pope on Saturday Night Live.
(Not getting how absolutely radical that gesture was at the time, and still is. How could sheâ€”she wasnâ€™t even born then! But some of us remember.)
Proving, if nothing else, Oâ€™Connorâ€™s point about the pimping.
But, as I was hinting in the beginning, one womanâ€™s pimping is the other womanâ€™s homage– after all there is no pimping without love.
To that point, I must confess I love that song, which hums like the pimped up cyborg love child of Jamesâ€™ Browns Sex Machine and David Bowieâ€™s TVC 15, even if Iâ€™m told that Robin Thicke is the new exterminator in the â€œWar On Women,â€ but I donâ€™t love Miley Cyrus enough to go to one of her concerts.
Instead, I went to see Sinead Oâ€™Conner when she was passing through town, and although it was weird sitting in that winery surrounded by middle aged fans like myself, when the lights dimmed and she took the stage she was as bald and as beautiful as ever. She was wearing a low cut washed out shirt that read â€œRasta at Heartâ€. I started dreaming about egg chairs in red, gold and green wool upholstery.
Â  – See more at: http://perezhilton.com/2013-10-02-miley-cyrus-open-letter-sinead-oconnor-wrecking-ball/#sthash.ihyg77k0.dpuf
GuestÂ PostÂ by Virginia Konchan
“Feminism isÂ . . . just a gimmick to attract some voters who place gender above any other issue. Respecting the rules of the Money Power during a campaign means toeing the line of oligarchy while in power. Â Â Neither men nor women benefit from this. Â [Hilary] Clinton and her neoliberal allies are hijacking feminism and the rhetoric of diversity.”
â€”Pierre Guerlain, Truthout
“There is no liberation that only knows how to say â€˜I.â€™ Â There is no collective movement that speaks for each of us all the way through.â€
â€”Adrienne Rich, â€œNotes Toward a Politics of Locationâ€
The lampooning of Mitt Romneyâ€™s quip in defense to sexist accusationsÂ (â€œI have binders full of womenâ€), aside, the fact remains:Â the social status of women as â€œplaceholdersâ€ or sex objects in the commodity market is subtended linguistically, and historically:Â Â for a woman to define herself as a subject, not relationally as a wife, daughter, or mother, is to demand a changing of the guards in patriarchal lineage, wherein women are permitted to enter discourse only under the name of the father, or husband, as gatekeepers to signification as well as social recognition. Â This antagonism is explained away by Slavoj Å½iÅ¾ek as a means of condemning women so as to control the flow of â€œfeminine excess,â€ threatening to destroy the masculineâ€™s economy of lack (a womanâ€™s performance of these roles for the male gaze or its representative prosthesesâ€”camera, video, canvasâ€”the very source of phallic jouissance).
The prohibition against theÂ a priori existence of women as volitional subjects (reproductive femininity as metaphysical and medical “problems”):Â a black comedy, indeed.Â The inadmissibility of female self-representation unless patrolled by a state-sponsored or private guardianship (marriage) is the subject of Lindy Westâ€™s hilarious riposte in Jezebel to the box-office film â€œLove, Actuallyâ€:Â in Westâ€™s reading, the film accords a â€œ27-word allotmentâ€ of speech to women, which character Emma Thompson exceeds.Â â€œHugh Grant falls instantly in love with Natalie, which is understandable, because she hasn’t yet exceeded her Love Actually attractiveness word quota (Twenty-seven. The quota is 27 words before you become Emma Thompson and must be destroyed.)â€
The 27-word allotment quip, along with Romneyâ€™s â€œbindersâ€ comment, however funny, provide an important metacommentary to post-feminism:Â from gaslighting to statistical disproportions in the workplace and economy (documented at VIDAâ€™S The Count), the gag rule of enforced silence is predicated on the objectification of women (dolls donâ€™t talk, unless manufactured to do so):Â all representations of female subjectivity not in service of the neoliberal male imaginary are aberrant misfires, and their authors must either be conscripted into un- and underpaid care work within the service economy, or (in First, Second, and Third Worlds), literally punished.
Rebecca Walker coined the term “third-wave feminism” in a 1992 essay:Â since then, the Third Waveâ€™s focus on inclusivity has steered second-wave feminismâ€™s struggle against racism, sexism, and classism, toward an active embrace of pop culture and performance, embodied in Eve Enslerâ€™s play and book The Vagina Monologues; the punk rockâ€™s riot grrrls movement; the Guerrilla Girls; singers Madonna, Queen Latifah, and Mary J. Blige, among others, and the women depicted in television series such as Buffy the Vampire Slayer (1997â€“2003), Sex and the City (1998â€“2004), and Girlfriends (2000â€“08). Â Third Wave cyberfeminists communicate largely through e-zines, blogs, and social media, online feeds proliferating alongside books attempting structural treatments of extant “feminist” aims.Â Â â€œBy about 2000, questions of sexualized behaviour raised debate on whether such things as revealing clothing, designer-label stiletto heels, and amateur pole dancing represented true sexual liberation and gender equality or old oppressions in disguise . . .Â [The Third Waveâ€™s] greatest strength, multivocality, was attacked . . . Third-wavers countered this criticism by stating that the creation of a unified agenda or philosophy . . . was a goal that was not only unrealistic but undesirable.â€Â Â Â Â 
The vision of the Third Wave lay not in economic analysis, or activism, per se, but identity politics:Â Â a privileging of diversity, statistical accounting, and aesthetic hybridity.Â This rejection of hegemonic culture, however, considering that to divide and conquer is a militaristic strategy imposed from without, the absence of a cohesive vision or praxis, like the Occupy Movement, can potentially weaken a movement, returning us to the question of governance (long abandoned as desirable in a pluralistic democracy ruled instead, ironically, not by a free, self-sufficient citizenry but by mass media and neocon war machines).Â Opinions vary on the demarcation between the third and fourth waves of feminism, and what constitutes the â€œfourth wave,â€ internationally:Â the fourth wave, like the second, focuses on legislative rights, and statistical tracking (e.g. The Counting Dead Women campaign) but also online misogyny, economic parity, and, during the years after the 2008 financial crash and the coalition government, activism against loan predation (education, housing, credit cards), unemployment and under-employment, zero-hours contracts, bedroom taxes, damaging rhetoric against immigrants, the disabled and those who need support from the state. This new generation of feminists are tech-savvy and gender-sophisticated, in part due to trans-health initiatives (e.g. the Feminist Womenâ€™s Health Centers in Atlanta) and trans-inclusive organizations like Third Wave Foundation (helmed by feminists in their twenties and thirties). Â â€œReproductive justiceâ€ is an oft-bandied term by fourth-wave feminists, as transgenderism, male feminists, sex work, and complex relationships with the media, spectacle culture, and identity politics structures this aporetic movement.
Anti-essentialism (the recognition that womenâ€™s condition is always at odds with womenâ€™s differences from one another, as well as their social and economic power), has become the backbone of postmodern feminism:Â an academic discipline wherein the idea that subjects (genders, races, and cultures) share intrinsic qualities was exchanged for the â€œneither/norâ€ flux of postmodernityâ€™s memes (multiplicity, catachresis).Â Anti-essentialist feminism acknowledges difference, yet, the ontological disciplines contextualizing personhood (biology, psychology) have become increasingly irrelevant in post-humanist discourse.Â Without the language to mark the difference of oneâ€™s body from other bodies, and the subtle conditions (social and epistemological) governing entry into discourse communities, it becomes impossible to articulate the “difference” between human branding and consumer choice, amid a glut of media blitzes offering opportunities for self-fashioning through purchasing power (the diet, fitness, salon, cosmetic, and retail industries). Â The cults of personality, hipster cool, and “original” ideas: Â priced (commodified), shelved, and sold.
In 2006, and 2008, Toril Moi published two consecutive essays in PMLA, and Feminist Theory, respectively:Â entitled â€œâ€œI Am Not a Feminist, But . . .â€: Â How Feminism Became the F-Word,â€ and â€˜I am not a woman writerâ€™:Â About women, literature and feminist theory today.â€Â According to Moi, postfeminist culture gradually arose after the debates between Peggy Kamuf and Nancy Miller in the early 80s dismantled a coalitional feminism, and womenâ€™s writing and sexual difference as legitimized categories of scholarship and cultural practice.
Poststructuralism also worked to invalidate categories of difference, according to some:Â in the 1981 essays by Kamuf and Miller, and their correspondence in 1989, Kamuf objects to the feminist â€œreduction of the literary work to the signature,â€ claiming an interest in womenâ€™s writing to be simply a feminist version of the liberal humanism Foucault had upended.Â Miller believed that regardless of what Kamuf might consider to be theoretically correct, feminists still needed to work on behalf of women writers, otherwise these women would â€œsoon be forgotten, lost to history.â€Â Â Â By the late 80s, Kamuf (a Derridean translator) had disavowed the word â€œfeminist,â€ as referencing a closed system which inevitably would end up deconstructing itself.Â Miller, conversely, still thought that feminism was politically necessary, but that identity politics had passed.Â The path forward was unclear, and critical theory has since been marked by what Alice Jardine calls â€œnon-knowledgeâ€:Â asignificatory terms (â€œnon-narration,â€ â€œanti-lyricâ€), also in critical race theory and Lacanian philosophy (woman as “pas tout”), rather than an appositive definition of otherness (however unhelpful, as Judith Butler has argued, such resignifications can be, reentering as they do the undertow of negative dialectics).
Liberal and conservative feminists alike have been accused of essentializing the category of women, just as, in race theory, the accusation of â€œconceptual blacknessâ€ counters that of â€œconceptual whiteness.â€Â Neither Kamuf nor Miller exchanged gender-based politics for a class- or race-based feminism, and Marxist feminism dropped off sharply during this decade, though echoes of sociologist Christine Delphyâ€™s manifesto (â€œwomen are a classâ€) reappear today, as women writers move beyond biological and gender essentialism, static genre definitions, and the high theory of Ã©criture fÃ©minine, seeking new access points to postmodern socio-political discourse.Â â€œI am interested here in new thought,â€ says poet Lisa Robertson.Â â€œI am standing dressed in the skin of a sheep or a cow in the occidental forest. My name shall be she to them. It is a shame. It is velvety, voluptuous, and odorous . . . each thingâ€™s hunger is my fate, is universe of the undiscussed.Â Â My name shall be she to them, in grotesque, monstrous, most ancient mixture.Â Â This is a class.â€Â 
Signifiying a movement, in language, or attempting to name a problem, may be recondite, but the struggles for equality, safety and civil rights persist: Â complicity in pop culture through the desensitizations of post-ironic media (parodic and slapstick humor), can discharge tension, grief, paranoia, and shame, but perpetuate the underreporting of gender-based violence (a Daily Beast article states only seven percent of these crimes are reported): Â the moral relativization of crime coupled with the literality of suffering. Â The perpetuation of rape culture will continue for as long as the conversation is one-sided, with rape apologists such as James Taranto, Richard Mourdock, or George Galloway behind the mike (referencing Julian Assange’s sexual assault charges, Galloway argued that if the victim is asleep, it canâ€™t be considered rape: Â â€œThis is something which can happen . . . not everybody needs to be asked prior to each insertion.â€)
If women are only considered as moving parts (domestic workers, mothers, sex commodities) in a post-industrial assembly line, how can they experience themselves, or other women, as agents of their life, bodies, and vocations, unless precedents are set and laws upheld?Â Â Because rape culture, like every cycle of violence, is perpetuated by silence, victim-blaming, and a lack of solidarity, support for women by women can be difficult to find in a culture where the consequences (from social stigmatization to murder) can result from speaking out against rape, misogyny, or hate speech, in, for example, the U.S. Military, where an increase of females in positions of authority has been countered, according toÂ statisticsÂ released by the Pentagon,Â with a sharp increase in sexual assault.
If the most powerful word in childhood and adult development is “no” (determining what one doesnâ€™t want before developing preferential desires), how useful is an arsenal of â€œsafe wordsâ€ in sado-masochistic sexual relations, for a woman who hasnâ€™t internalized her right to negotiate the social contract, see its terms as fluid and not compulsory, or decline to participate, at all? Â Â Conscription into sexual and domestic slavery, as well as non-consensual sex, without language, isn’t, then, a question of complacency or complicity.Â According to Catharine MacKinnon, Noam Chomskyâ€™s â€œmanufacturing of choiceâ€ is the sid pro quo of a womanâ€™s initiation into capitalist relations of gender dominance (â€œmore than one-third of all girls experience sex . . . under conditions that even this society recognizes are forced or at least unequalâ€):Â the manufacturing not just of choice, but desire.Â Robin West agrees, questioning how â€œliberatedâ€ is the seeming assent of 21st century women in coerced embraces of, say, domesticity (kitchen, child-rearing), when there doesnâ€™t seem to exist viable alternatives, an outside to capitalism, or another opportunity for labor. Â Â 
The culture industry makes a killing marketing sadomasochistic violence (from revenge porn to snuff films) as â€œsexy,” pumping out images of men as sexual aggressors tasked with â€œbaggingâ€ â€œhavingâ€ â€œshaggingâ€ or â€œnailingâ€ women to maintain social clout, and women, with demurring until the right suitor arrives, initiating only to risk the stigma of promiscuity were the date or relationship to become violent or abusive beyond her ability to identify (name) or control.Â Celebrities and pop stars also deliver the message not only of consent, but enjoyment in playing the role of the subjugated: Â Brittany Spearsâ€™ â€œIâ€™m a Slave for you,â€ and Gagaâ€™s â€œDo What you Wantâ€ (with my body), as stylized marketing ploys advertising the woman as penitent whore, as in Sade’s Justine: Â a willed, even campy, prostitution of body and self.
The link between the erotic and the pornographic, performed or actual subjection, and pain and pleasure, is not a postmodern perversion, of course:Â George Bataille, more than any other modernist, mourned the impossibility of thinking the un-representable (the â€œholy terrorâ€ as Jacques RanciÃ¨re put it) except by recourse to images of torture and the erotic; Bataillesâ€™ Tears of Eros is a paean to Todestriebe (death drive), the â€œsupreme atrocity of nonbeing,â€ and its transcendence, through art.
If a return to signifying terms (coalitional feminism, eco-feminism, eco-socialism, conscious/creative/cognitive/Bolshivek capitalism) isnâ€™t the answer in resurrecting subject-object relations of mutual acknowledgment and reciprocity, rather than mutually assured destruction or annihilation, can it help? Â The democratic dream of rule by the people or moral majority is myopic, to say the least: Â as Alexis de Toqueville pointed out in Democracy in America,Â representational democracy can easily devolve into mob rule:Â control by the moneyed elite, reducing the â€œotherâ€ to a wage-laborer, or tokenistic fetish. Â Angela Davis argues for the creation and circulation of micronarratives, crucial to providing a dialogic structure for the survival of self, other, and community in protest against historical erasure:Â heterogeneous â€œformsâ€ of representation toppling the vacuous clichÃ©s and rhetorics (boosterism, aesthetic volunteerism) of free market capitalism.Â 
Finding new forms of self-articulation outside of these donnÃ©sÂ (necessary evils?) are key to exiting the maze:
â€œI love [Zaha Hadidâ€™s] little manifesto â€˜Randomness vs. Arbitrarinessâ€™ . . . â€œRandomness in architecture is a visual translation of pure mathematical order and thinking which is guided by logic, whereas arbitrariness has no underlying conceptual logic. . . . A catalogue exists from which they freely copy anything and apply it with little relevance to any situation. But in architecture our responsibilities are far greater: we must create a new dynamics of architecture in which the land is partially occupied. We must understand the basic principles of liberationâ€™ (1982).â€Â 
Questioning the utility of a materialist theory of language, and an aleatory â€œaestheticâ€ as emancipatory, Robertson asks if we could differentiate, though writing, beginning with recognizing the difference between intentional, or intentioned (purposed for an other) forms.Â How else, in other words, to transition from being an occupied â€œsiteâ€ or essentialized collective to a signifying subject, then to recognize chance operations as a means (revolutionary and freeing) yet not a reified end-game in itself? Â Â â€œCould we recognize that arbitrariness is not in itself liberatory? [ . . . ] How could a text partially occupy a site?â€
The actual making of art defies the history of female as muse or amanuensis, whose goal is to accurately translate a male speaker (e.g. Vera Nabakov).Â Mimesis, however, since Homer, can also be seen as a procedural stage or apprenticeship:Â Â Mary Wollstonecraft was inspired by the male-dominated the French Revolution, Simone de Beauvoir adopted Sartreâ€™s phallocentric categories, and John Stuart Mill attempted to provide a structural critique of womenâ€™s oppression.Â â€œThe point is not the origins of an idea (no provenance is pure), but the use to which it is put and the effects it can produce,â€ says Moi. Â 
Alicia Ostrikerâ€™s Stealing the Language, Prosperpine (1820), by Mary and Percy Byshe Shelley, The Speed of Darkness by Muriel Rukeyser (1960), Snapshots of a Daughter-in-Law by Adrienne Rich (1963), Plath and Sextonâ€™s archaeo-mythologies, and works by Alice Walker, Margaret Atwood, Chris Krauss, Eileen Myles, Ariana Reines, Alice Notely, and many others, are powerful revisionist texts. Â In theory, Helene Cixous and Luce Irigaray have reapproriated Derridaâ€™s writings, Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar, the literary theory of Harold Bloom, and Helene Cixous, the consequences of what she calls â€œdeath-dealing binary thought.â€
Shock can be used as political tool to anesthetize subjects, so as to smoothly â€œrewriteâ€ narratives of place, origin, and criminal history: Â or erase them all-together. Â During a period of post-9/11 cultural paralysis, this subterfuge began, argues Naomi Klein inÂ The Shock Doctrine,Â with theÂ reappropriation of language, perpetuating the myth that the global free market triumphed democratically. Â Â Neoliberal aesthetics hasn’t helped, decontextualizing the subject from a frame, leaving said â€œsubjectâ€ vulnerable to packaging and branding, as an vehicleÂ consumption and cooptation in the legacy of Marx (claimed by Stalinist and Maoist rÃ©gimes), Orwell, by neocons, and â€œfeminismâ€ by the Bush administration to justify its wars of choice.
Along with textual revisionism, erasure poetics can also provide a necessary ground clearing for the recovery of place (beginning with, as Adrienne Rich noted, a reclamation of the gendered, racial, scarred, female body by differentiating between “the body” and “my body” as a particularized, specific site) and post-colonial, post-imperialist history.Â Collier Nogues sets her erasure poems in sites of recollection (her childhood spent at military bases in Japan):Â poet Lynn Xu has spoken about her writing as shaped by her childhood in Shanghi.Â Â Erasure poetics (the whiting-out rather than inscribing of the â€œtraceâ€), unlike silence, acknowledges context:Â the self as conceived, stabilized, through mirroring, then made, through overwriting, erasing, or succeeding a precursorâ€™s frame. Â (Derrida rightly citesÂ writing as a â€œperniciousâ€ pharmakon, both remedy and poison: Â as an externalization of experience, writing requires citationality to shore up ethos, and any attempts at inscription, in the technocratic age, prompt issues of intellectual property and copyright, parasitism and plagarism.)
However we choose to reconcile with the paradoxical power and vulnerability of language, speaking cogently (or deliriously, as declared by the censors) is crucial to combat non-economic (sexual violence, sex trafficking, reproductive rights) and economic realities for women in an era of contingent labor (decreased wages and job security, declining living standards, unpaid overtime, exacerbation of the double/triple/quadruple shift â€“ and a rise in poverty, increasingly concentrated in female-headed households). Â UncriticalÂ consumption of neoliberal cant (brand yourself, or be branded, and buy, or die), using the rhetoric of female empowerment to justify exploitation, feeds, rather than helps dismantle, capital proliferative anti-logic:Â Homo economiusâ€™ dog-eat-dog (Darwinian) “laws,” relegating exiled representations to the margins of the canon as minor or, simple inadmissible, as Â “literature,” both in form (realpoetik vs. corporatespeak), publication, and distribution. Â F@*$ the Bauhaus, in the words of Isa Genzken, German multimedia artist whose works explode notions of scale and perception (the word â€œno,â€ in its most eloquent form).
 Encylopedia Brittanica entry on Feminism, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism
 Toril Moi, â€˜I am not a woman writerâ€™:Â About women, literature and feminist theory today,â€ Feminist Theory, vol. 9(3): 259â€“271, 2008, pg.
 Don Share, reposting of Lisa Robertsonâ€™s â€œDispatch from Jouhet!,â€ Harriet, November 11, 2009.
 Robin West, â€œThe Difference in Womenâ€™s Hedonic Lives:Â A Phenomenological Critique of Feminist Legal Theory,â€ Wisconsin Womenâ€™s Law Journal 3 (1987):Â 94.
 Angela Davis, Truthout, May 6, 2013, â€œRecognizing Racism in the Era of Neoliberalism.â€
 Feminist, Female, Feminine, The Feminist Reader:Â Essays in Gender and the Politics of Literary Criticism, Eds. Catherine Belsey and Jane Moore (London:Â Blackwell, 1997), p. 4.
Virginia Konchanâ€™s poems have appeared inÂ Best New Poets, The Believer,Â The New Yorker,Â andÂ The New Republic, her criticism inÂ Workplace: Â A Journal for Academic Labor,Â Quarterly Conversation, New Madrid,Â andÂ Boston Review, and her fiction inÂ StoryQuarterlyÂ andÂ Joyland, among other places. Â Co-founder ofÂ Matter, a journal of poetry and political commentary, regular contributor to The Conversant and, in 2014, Jacket2, she lives in Chicago. Â
Guest post by Teresa Albor
Jeremy Deller said last month that art is useless.Â He said this in front of an audience of artists and no one batted an eyelash, no one objected, no one was offended.Â The event was an all day/all night performance piece, involving dozens of artists led by Bob and Roberta Smith, who gathered at the rundown seaside resort of Scarborough on the east coast of England. Â â€œThe Art Partyâ€ brought a spot of bright colour to the grey landscape, and approached the serious issue of cuts to government spending on the arts in a way only artists would: by breaking rules, being witty and irreverent. Perhaps, because it wasnâ€™t seeking to be â€œusefulâ€ the event was thought-provoking sans the righteousness of more serious affairs.
Having spent October in the village of Toffia working on a piece called â€œEverything simple is false,â€Â Bob and Roberta Smithâ€™s project resonated. Â My month in Italy occurred at the end of three years in Chicago and before a move back to London.Â Although the village became home and the Association that sponsored me an instant community, I was very much an outsider, embedded for all too short a time to make a piece of art for/with an essentially captive audience. Arriving in Toffia was surprisingly reminiscent of my arrival to do development work as a US Peace Corps Volunteer on a tiny Philippine island thirty years ago. One big difference: This time there was no intention of â€œdoing goodâ€.Â This time I was not concerned with the â€œusefulnessâ€ of my work.
When working in a process-based way, the intention can be to confer agency to people, but if this doesnâ€™t happen itâ€™s no big deal.Â And without going down the rabbit hole of trying to ascertain the criteria by which one critiques a relational project (if this is what this type of work might be called), my experience, at the very least, reinforced the importance of avoiding the pitfalls of trying to â€œdo good â€ and its close corollary, to â€œbe useful.â€
It also served to shed more light on other aspects/limitations of this way of working: that all relational work is political because it involves people; the tensions between maintaining the integrity of a piece when provocation ensues; the fact that you leave and others stay behind; and feeling as if you are inflicting your work on an audience that hasnâ€™t asked for it.
What happened was expected and unexpected at the same time.
The title of the piece is a reference to â€œBoniniâ€™s paradoxâ€: when complex systems are simplified so we can understand them, they become less true.Â A completely accurate map, for example, would need to be 1:1 to capture the detail of the territory it is meant to represent, but would be completely impractical.Â So we simplify it, modify it to suit our needs, until it becomes false, but perhaps, useful.Â (The London Tube Map is a good example.) This project was about discovering the complexity of a seemingly idyllic hill top village outside of Rome, to understand the â€œmore trueâ€ version vs. an outsiderâ€™s perception of its picture postcard perfectness. The idea was to listen to the people who lived there and reflect back to them what they were saying about themselves. Beyond that, the strategy was left to evolve based on living and working in the community.
This was not intended as a piece of political art.Â But in this case, as the village was in the process of selecting candidates for next yearâ€™s mayoral elections, everything that impacted the daily lives of the village was perceived as political.Â And as the artist Tanya Bruguera has said, art is not political art, unless it has consequences.Â Using the low-tech bulletin board system of the village, flyers with quotes gathered though interviews with several villagers were posted.Â The first called for affinity despite the perfections and imperfections of the village. A local SMS number was displayed along with the phrase: â€œWhat do you think?â€ Forms were also distributed after cultural events and we used the Associationsâ€™ Facebook page to solicit content, which, interestingly, generated the most direct comments. The second flyer said: â€œToffia is divided. Toffia is united.Â What do you think?â€Â By now the posters were the talk of the town, some were torn down, and it was rumored the mayorâ€™s office didnâ€™t want any more posters to go up.
One woman said: â€œYouâ€™ve put your finger in a wound.â€ She was, as were most people, quietly supportive. The consensus seemed to be that this â€œoutsiderâ€ was saying what no one else would say, that only an â€˜outsiderâ€™ would say.Â In fact, all of the words, phrases, quotes came from people living in the village. Clearly, the work was going to be provocative, but what was unexpected was how easy it would be to provoke.Â Meanwhile, the Association was being put under pressure.Â It has taken years of hard work for the group to set up and operate a cultural programme on a tiny budget.Â To their credit they engaged in nuanced discussions about how to proceedâ€”essentially encouraging and supporting the project.Â It was left to me to decide how far to push, knowing that if I pushed too hard, I could damage the very organization sponsoring me.
My methodology afforded me an observerâ€™s vantage point. At least six international artists a year stay in this village, and many of us do relational pieces.Â Wanting to avoid directly approaching too many of the residents here was, in part, to avoid what a fellow artist described as treating the audience like a â€œvending machineâ€ for â€œresponses to art projectsâ€.Â Locating so much experimentation in such a small place has its limitations.
In the end, responsesâ€”including those that were flattering as well as those that were provocativeâ€”were collated into a book with black and white line drawing illustrations of the village, alluding to oneâ€™s ability to layer their own perceptions over a neutral reality.Â One hundred copies were given away for free on market day.Â The following day, an event/open studio was held and the Association led discussions of the work.Â To my surprise, the aspect of the poster campaign that was considered political was the phrase: â€œWhat do you think?â€ and several people at the event proposed continuing with more editions of a free periodical called: â€œWhat do you think?â€Â Whether this initiative takes off or not, at least the possibility of taking action, always there, sometimes acted upon, was considered.
As an artist assessing my own work, the strength of this project was the attempt to engage vs. entertain an audience and an openness to many different outcomes.Â It would not have been possible to achieve this if the work had as its intention an overt usefulness.Â And whilst flawed, and imperfect, too short, too simplistic, this project is certainly one that was worth doing and from which more, and better projects will emerge.
In a critical Robinsonian sense of utility or usefulness â€“ that utility is a circular concept in that an entityâ€™s utility is what makes it desirable, whilst the fact that individuals desire something shows that it has utilityâ€”art could be considered both useless and useful, in a world where we accept that art provides a deeper quality of life, even strongly desire art to be part of our lives.Â However, as artists, by accepting that what we make or do does not necessarily align itself with conventional definitions of usefulness we are enabled to move even further away from the trap of â€œproductionâ€ within a capitalist social economy.Â This represents real freedom (and a good starting point for another essay).
Teresa Albor is a multidisciplinary artist currently based in London and interested in site specific projects and working with/within communities. Current investigations revolve around what art is, who it is for, how and where it is made, and where it is shown. A Midwesterner, with an MFA from the University of Arts London and an undergraduateÂ degree from the University of Wisconsin, she recently spent three years in Chicago.Â
 Joan Robinson, 1962. Economic Philosophy. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, UK: Penguin Books Ltd.Â “Utility is the quality in commodities that makes individuals want to buy them, and the fact that individuals want to buy commodities shows that they have utility”.Â I like the fact that Amartya Sen described her as “totally brilliant but vigorously intolerant” and another of her students, Joseph Stiglitz, described his relationship with her as “tumultuous”.